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Beads and eyes
Beads or eyes are added for one or both of two reasons: weight and appearance.
The eyes and beads discussed here are made from metal: brass, steel, lead - even tungsten. This will make them heavy and thus add weight to the fly. The weight will bring the fly down and often give it a certain behaviour - a diving or jigging motion.
But it will also add to the looks of the fly, the most obvious case being eyes added to fish or fry patterns like streamers.